John Dryden (1631-1700), the main poet of the Restoration Age, was born at Aldwincle, a village close to Oundle in Northampton shire. His paternal grand father named Sir Eramus Dryden was a baroner and his mom was Girl Pickering, the primary cousin of Sir Gilbert Pickering. He acquired his major training within the village faculty of neighbouring Tichmarsh. From Tichmarsh, he handed on to Westminster faculty concerning the 12 months 1642. From Westminster, he went to Trinity School, Cambridge in 1650.He was near Sir Robert Howard that friendship precipitated of his marriage with Girl Elizabeth in 1663, the daughter of his pal, however the marriage proved sad.
Undoubtedly, he was an authentic and discriminating critic. Dr Johnson referred to as him, “the daddy of English Criticism”. In addition to, he was the founder of recent prose fashion. He was an impressive poet and dramatist. In his age, minor literary critics have been so many with their erratic work, however the main contemporaries with vital work have been Thomas Rhymer, John Dennis and Jeremy Collier. It might be higher to debate social and literary background of his age (1660-1700).
A. Social Background:
The Age of Dryden begins with the Restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660 until the demise of the poet in 1700. It won’t be exaggeration to say that he was the dominant literary determine who properly represented the interval. His age was deeply influenced by the three historic occasions: the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, the non secular and political controversies and the Popish plot, and the Golden Revolution of the 12 months 1688. So far as the Restoration of Charles II is anxious, it elevated corruption and many others. It took a violent response towards the Puritan restraints. All of the values of society, what the Puritan had prevailed, have been violated. The king was very odd had various mistresses and illegitimate youngsters. He was irresponsible and unpatriotic who all the time stood towards his guarantees, broke his treaty with the Dutch and along with his personal ministers and betrayed his nation. His courtroom was dishonourable and the parliament handed the payments towards the church and the state with the thirst of revenge from those that have been related with the puritan authorities of Cromwell. The Home of Lords was elevated by the creation of hereditary titles, desecrated males and unabashed girls. Even the judiciary was not secure.
On this period, the unpleasantness within the subject of non secular and political events was strongly vivid. There have been the 2 central political events, the Whigs and the Tories. They divided the environment of the nation with their contact. The Whigs was in favour of limiting the royal energy within the pursuits of the nation and the parliament, the place because the Tories was totally different and it supported the ‘divine proper’ principle of the kings. The each events proved fruitful for the boys of literary talents. They have been in pursuit of the assist and bribed them with locations and pensions. The writers of the day weren’t free from the political bias and contest.
The non secular battle or bias was extra bitter. The nation was dominantly protestant and the catholic labored beneath various disabilities. They needed to pay increased taxes and weren’t permitted to carry any workplace beneath the Crown. Such hatred for Catholics was an excellent challenge of that occasions writing.
Aside from it, on this period the Popish plot comes as a result of the king was very weak within the subject of faith however his brother was a Roman Catholic. Charles II had no reliable son or inheritor of the throne. After him, his brother James would sit on the throne. The plot was made to exclude him from the throne and create the environment to take a seat the Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of Charles II. This controversy was referred to as Popish plot by Titus Oates. Shaftsbury made numerous makes an attempt to exclude James however the king supported his brother and the way in which was cleaned for the accession of James. The well-known poem of Dryden, Absalam and Achitophel displays or interprets these non secular or political controversies or prejudices of the day.
James II ascended the throne in 1685. He had numerous plots and beneath them, he tried to determine Catholicism within the nation. Such misrule made him fairly unpopular in his nation in a short while. In response, the nation stood towards him and the Cold Revolution of 1688 restored the nation to nice and wholesome environment after the struggling of immorality and corruption which had been working for the reason that Restoration. James was exiled and the protestant William and Mary sat on the throne.
B. Literary Background:
In literature, this faculty of criticism is named Neo-classical, pseudo classical or Augustan Age. On this period, literary males started to mimic the French writers. It was a blind imitation led them copy the worst work as a substitute of utilizing their wit. So it was solely copy. They name it Augustan Age as a result of the writers of the time thought-about their age was as wonderful because the age of King Augustus Caesar of Rome. That age produced sensible literary figures as Horace, Virgil, Longinous and Quintillian. The place as, on this pseudo-classical age, John Dryden was a dominant determine that is why it’s referred to as the Age of Dryden.
The rise of Neo-Classicism broke away the chains of Puritanism. The Publish Restoration literature was of Elizabethan Age the place because the neo-classical literature stood reverse to the Elizabethan Romanticism. Earlier than Dryden, Sir Philip Sidney and Ben Jonson have been two nice poets of Elizabethan Age. After Ben Jonson, literary exercise in England suffered quite a bit. Between Ben Jonson and John Dryden is hardly discovered any main critic due to non secular and social controversies. The Restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660 penetrated a beneficial environment with French affect that supplanted sensuous and romantic Italian affect. Charles II and the opposite literary males have been beneath this affect as a result of they’d handed probably the most time in France. On the return to England, they introduced a brand new gale of French literature, which renounced previous beliefs and requirements. They demanded the English poetry on the brand new fashion. The Italian affect was forgone and the literary males began to mimic the French writers blindly. In order that they copied the worst work as a substitute of utilizing their wit. The affect of French comedy is seen in clumsiness and indecency of The Restoration Comedy of Manners of Dryden, Wycherley and Congreve. The mutual affect of French and Classical fashions of tragedy is seen in a brand new style, the heroic tragedy. It’s effectively represented by Dryden’s ‘Tyrannic Love’. This affect can also be answerable for the expansion of the opera within the Restoration England.
This response was towards the romantic inclinations and favoured realism to an excellent extent. In case of realism, its inception was very dangerous. The early Restoration writers painted practical photos of a corrupt courtroom and society. Their emphasis was on vices fairly than virtues and produced coarse and low performs with out curiosity or ethical significance. Later, it acquired change and elevated the writers’ curiosity for the research of sensible motives which dominated human actions. One can’t gainsay from this assertion that it was the response towards the extravagances of each the Elizabethans and the Metaphysical. John Donne is a metaphysical poet and his followers appreciated a revolt in favour of order, steadiness and sanity in literature. They used limitless hyperboles, far- fetched and violent similes and metaphors and conceits. This response supported the tendency in the direction of directness and ease and expression. The writers of earlier ages have been keen on utilizing extravagance in thought and language. The sentences have been enriched with classical quotations and references. The Restoration writers opposed it and shaped guidelines and stated fare effectively to the romantic fancy. So the emphasis was on correctness and decorum. Correctness means to foster reasonable opinions reasonably expressed. The decorum was to pursue the foundations of ancients as interpreted by the French. Dryden clearly marked this new tendency and by advantage of his affect, the writers developed that formalism of fashion which was wrongly referred to as classicism.
On this age, the expansion of science, non secular and political controversies was discovered. All gave delivery to prose. Arnold says, “The Restoration marks the actual second of delivery of our trendy English prose.”The earlier writers have been erratic and their work was over loaded with classical allusions and quotations.Truly, the Elizabethan prose was not acceptable for telling a plain story. The epigrammatic fashion of Bacon and the grandiloquent prose of Milton couldn’t be appropriate for scientific, historic, political and philosophical writings or novel -writing. The spirit of this new sort of prose developed and Dryden was the chief chief. His work,’Dramatic Poesy’ launched a brand new mannequin of prose which was fully totally different from the prose of earlier ages. He wrote in a plain, easy however exact fashion, free from exaggeration. The opposite writers additionally got here beneath his affect they usually additionally helped to develop the brand new prose fashion by their very own particular person advance. It was fairly free from monotony.
Prose was the eminent fashion or weapon of this period. Even the poetry of this period was additionally prosaic and it was used for narrative, satiric or didactic functions. The poetry was for the aim of persuasion however not for inspiration. It was the beneficial fashion of narrating the controversies that precipitated the expansion of satire. The perfect poetry of this eon is satirical. Dryden’s ‘Absalom and Achitophel’ is a finest identified political satire. On this satire, Dryden defends the king towards the Earl of Shaftesbury who’s represented as Achitophel. His different work ‘Mac Flecknoe’ is an instance of non-public satire. It additionally accommodates a scathing private assault on Thomas Shadwell who was as soon as a pal of Dryden. ‘The Rehearsal’ depicts the literary vices of the time and is the primary literary satire in English literature. His different two poems ‘Religio laici’ and ‘The Hind and the Panther’ are theological and controversial.
The opposite contribution to this age was the expansion and the perfection of the heroic couplet. Chaucer used it however insisted on the thought or notion. The place because the writers of the Restoration gave significance to the shape. Waller and Dryden used it with literary vogue. The couplet turned “Closed”. Its pair of traces confirmed an entire thought and was said as exactly as might be. So it turned the order of the day and all different types of versification have been expelled. The dominancy remained a single century and later its freshness handed away.
Such controversies disturbed the age quite a bit however added an excellent assist in case of literature. It additionally proved John Dryden an exponent of this neo-classicism and Bunyan was, too, appreciated who labored like John Milton. It introduced novelty and expelled monotony from the literature.